Ancient Egypt and Archaeology Web Site

Amenhotep III, ruled 1390-1352 BC


 
Transliteration - nb-mAat-ra imn-Htp-HqA-wAst
 
Related articles
Granite statue - British Museum
Colossal granite head from the temple of Mut at Karnak - British Museum
Head of a Colossal statue, white crown carved from red granite - Luxor Museum
Seated statue from mortuary temple at Thebes - British Museum
Statue from mortuary temple in Thebes - British Museum
Limestone group statue of Amenhotep, Queen Tiye and three of their daughters - Cairo Museum
Statue of Amenhotep and Sobek carved from Calcite and from the Sobek temple at Dahamsha - Luxor Museum
Statue carved in Rose Quartzite from the Luxor Temple - Luxor Museum
Statue with a clenched fist, carved from granite from the Luxor Temple - Luxor Museum
Statue wearing the Blue War crown - Metropolitan Museum
 
Scarab commemorating a Lion Hunt - Cairo Museum
Scarab commemorating the marriage to Queen Tiye - Cairo Museum
Glazed steatite scarab commemorating Amenhotep III's marriage to Queen Tiye - Metropolitan Museum
Glazed steatite scarab commemorating Amenhotep III's prowess as a Lion hunter - Metropolitan Museum
Scarab, Lion hunt - Liverpool Museum
Scarab, mentions Karoy - British Museum
Scarab, with cartouches of Amenhotep and Tiye - British Museum
Scarab recording the creation of a lake - British Museum
 
Travertine lotus chalice - inscribed, with a dedication to Hathor, Mistress of Turquoise - Ashmolean Museum
Ivory whip handle, prancing horse - Metropolitan Museum
Faience Sphinx of Amenhotep III - Metropolitan Museum
Stela of Meryptah, Chief Steward of the mansion of Amenhotep III - Petrie Museum
Statue of Ptah dedicated to Amenhotep III - Museo Egizio di Turino
Porphyritic diorite statue of the head of a Cow Goddess - Metropolitan Museum
Alabaster Ushabti of Amenhotep III - Liverpool Museum
Quartzite statue of a Baboon, dating to the 18th Dynasty, c.1400 BC (EA 38) - British Museum

Royal Titulary
Each King created a name on his ascension to the throne and it was also a 'mandate' for this style of leadership. The royal name was comprised of 5 separate elements (although earlier kings used less) we modern writing often used the 'Nomen' or person name, which preceded his kingship. Many Egyptian names were translated into Greek, for example Amenhotep (Egyptian) into Amenophis (Greek) - older books tend to use the Greek names but this is now less common and a translation from the original hieroglyphs is used.
 
Horus name
This name was often written within a rectangular frame, on top of which perched the falcon-god Horus, which probably represented the king's palace. This name represented the king as the earthly incarnation of the ancient falcon-god Horus, who became the first divine patron of royalty.
 
'Nebty' name
Nbty means the 'Two Ladies', and this name emphasises the king's special relationship with the two great goddesses, Nekhbet, the vulture goddess of Upper Egypt, and Edjo, the cobra goddess of Lower Egypt . They ruled supreme as the two ancient capitals of Hieraconpolis and Pe, before Egypt was unified by King Menes in c. 3100 BC. However, they continued to play an important role as royal protectress even after unification - hence their inclusion in the royal titulary.
 
Golden Horus name
The meaning of this name is uncertain. It may signify the victory of Horus over his enemy Seth (in the myth of Osiris), but it may represent the reconciled enemies, Horus and Seth, as lords of Egypt .
 
Prenomen
From the 5th Dynasty onwards, the Prenomen and the Nomen were both written inside cartouches. The prenomen was adopted as a religious name by each king when he ascended to the throne, and it was always immediately preceded (outside the cartouche) by the title n-sw-bit 'he who belongs to the sedge and the bee'. The sedge represented Upper Egypt, and the bee Lower Egypt, so the title meant 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt '. The prenomen itself usually incorporates the name of the god Re (e.g. Neb-maet-re, 'Re is Lord of Truth').
 
Nomen
The nomen, again enclosed within a cartouche, was usually the name of the king before he succeeded to the throne (i.e. almost a family name) and therefore, it is not uncommon for several kings within a family to have the same nomen (e.g. Thutmose, Amenhotep, Senusret). The nomen was immediately preceded (outside the cartouche) by the title s3 R' ('son of Re').
 
The full titulary was only used in formal inscriptions; otherwise a king was usually identified by his prenomen which was either written alone or accompanied by the nomen.
 
The prenomen and nomen are usually left in their Egyptian forms (for example, 'Thutmose' rather than translating it into 'Thoth-is-born'). The transliteration of the kings' names vary in modern books on Egyptology. Some retain the Graecised form of a name, as it occurred in the historical account of Manetho (e.g., Amenophis, Sesostris, Cheops), whereas others give a translation based on the Hieroglyphs (e.g., Amenhotep, Senusret, Khufu). Pronunciations also vary, because of the absence of vowels in the hieroglyphic writings of the names and our limited knowledge of the pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian.

Egyptology and Archaeology through Images: Last updated on 21-November-2014
Recommended Books