Period

Dynasty

 

Period

Dynasty

PALAEOLITHIC PERIOD

   

NEW KINGDOM

18th Dynasty

SAHARAN NEOLITHIC PERIOD

   

RAMESSID PERIOD

19th Dynasty

PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD

     

20th Dynasty

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

1st Dynasty

 

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

21st Dynasty

 

2nd Dynasty

   

22nd Dynasty

OLD KINGDOM

3rd Dynasty

   

23rd Dynasty

 

4th Dynasty

   

24th Dynasty

 

5th Dynasty

   

25th Dynasty

 

6th Dynasty

 

LATE PERIOD

26th Dynasty

 

7th and 8th Dynasties

   

27th Dynasty (1st Persian Period)

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

9th and 10th Dynasties

   

28th Dynasty

 

11th Dynasty Thebes only

   

29th Dynasty

MIDDLE KINGDOM

11th Dynasty All of Egypt

   

30th Dynasty

 

12th Dynasty

   

2nd Persian Period

 

13th Dynasty

 

PTOLEMAIC PERIOD

Macedonian Dynasty

 

14th Dynasty

   

Ptolemaic Dynasty

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

15th Dynasty (Hyksos)

 

ROMAN PERIOD

 
 

16th Dynasty

 

Coptic

 
 

17th Dynasty

 

Islamic

 

Source:

The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, ISBN 0-19-280293-3 (larger soft-back with significantly better plates in colour) or 0-19-280458-8.  Possibly the best reference source for Ancient Egypt. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt is concerned with "not only the political change but also with social and economic developments, processes of religious and ideological change, and trends in material culture, whether in the form of architectural styles, techniques of mummification, or the fabrics of ceramics."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

PALAEOLITHIC PERIOD (Note 1) Lower Palaeolithic c.700/500,000-250,000 BP  
C.700,000-7000 BP Middle Palaeolithic c.250,000-70,000 BP  
  Transitional Group c.70,000-50,000 BP  
  Upper Palaeolithic c.50,000-24,000 BP  
  Late Palaeolithic c.247000-10,000 BP  
  Epipalaeolithic c.10,000-7000 BP  
SAHARAN NEOLITHIC PERIOD Early Neolithic c.8800-6800 BC  
c.8800-4700 BC Middle Neolithic c.6600-51OO BC  
  Late Neolithic c.5100-4700 BC  
PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD Neolithic (Lower Egypt) c.5300-4000 BC  
C.5300-3000 BC Maadi Cultural Complex (Lower) c.4000-3200 BC  
  Badarian Period (Upper) c.4400-4000 BC  
  Naqada I (Amratian) Upper c.4000-3500 BC  
  Naqada II (Gerzean) Upper c.3500-3200 BC Period After c.3200 BC the same chronological sequence applies to the whole of Egypt  
  Naqada III c.3200-3000 BC (sometimes referred to as Dynasty 0)  
EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD 1st Dynasty c.3000-2890 Aha  
c.3000-2686 BC   Djer  
    Djet  
    Den  
    Queen Merneith  
    Anedjib  
    Semerkhet  
    Qa'a  
  2nd Dynasty 2890-2686 Hetepsekhemwy  
    Raneb  
    Nynetjer  
    Weneg  
    Sened  
    Peribsen  
    Khasekhemwy  
OLD KINGDOM 3rd Dynasty 2686-2613 Nebka 2686-2667
2686-2160 BC   Djoser (Netjerikhet) 2667-2648
    Sekhemkhet 2648-2640
    Khaba 2640-2637
    Huni 2637-2613
  4th Dynasty 2613-2494 Sneferu 2613-2589
    Khufu (Cheops) 2589-2566
    Djedefra (Radjedef) 2566-2558
    Khafra (Chephren) 2558-2532
    Menkaura (Mycerinus) 2532-2503
    Shepseskaf 2503-2494
  5th Dynasty 2494-2345 Userkaf 2494-2487
    Sahura 2487-2475
    Neferirkara 2475-2455
    Shepseskara 2455-2448
    Raneferef 2448-2445
    Nyuserra 2445-2421
    Menkauhor 2421-2414
    Djedkara 2414-2375
    Unas 2375-2345
  6th Dynasty 2345-2181 Teti 2345-2323
    Userkara [a usurper] 2323-2321
    Pepy I (Meryra) 2321-2287
    Merenra 2287-2278
    Pepy II (Neferkara) 2278-2184
    Nitiqret 2184-2181
  7th and 8th Dynasties 2181-2160 - Numerous kings, called Neferkara, presumably imitating Pepy II.  
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 9th and 10th Dynasties (Herakleopolitan) 2160-2025   Khety (Meryibra)
2160-2055 BC   Khety (Nebkaura)  
    Khety (Wahkara)  
    Merykara  
  11th Dynasty 2125-2055 BC (Thebes only) Intef I (Sehertawy)  
    Intef II (Wahankh)  
    Intef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer)  
MIDDLE KINGDOM 11th Dynasty 2055-1985 BC Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetra) 2055-2004
2055-1650 BC (all Egypt) Mentuhotep III (Sankhkara) 2004-1992
    Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyra) 1992-1985
  12th Dynasty 1985-1773 Amenemhat I(Sehetepibra) 1985-1956
    Senusret I (Kheperkara) 1956-1911
    Amenemhat II (Nubkaura) 1911-1877
    Senusret II (Khakheperra) 1877-1870
    Senusret III (Khakaura) 1870-1831
    Amenemhat III (Nimaatra) 1831-1786
    Amenemhat IV (Maakherura) 1786-1777
    Queen Sobekneferu (Sobekkara) 1777-1773
  13th Dynasty 1773-after 1650 BC Wegaf (Khutawyra)  
    Sobekhotep II (Sekhemra-khutawy)  
    Iykhernefert Neferhotep (Sankhta sekhemra)  
    Ameny-intef-amenemhat (Sankhibra)  
    Hor (Awibra)  
    Khendjer (Userkara)  
    Sobekhotep III (Sekhemra-sewadjtawy)  
    Neferhotep I (Khasekhemra)  
    Sahathor  
    Sobekhotep IV (Khaneferra)  
    Sobekhotep V  
    Ay (Merneferra)  
  14th Dynasty 1773-1650 BC Minor rulers probably contemporary with the 13th or 15th Dynasty  
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 15th Dynasty (Hyksos) 1650-1550 BC Salitis/Sekerher c.1555
1650-1550 BC   Khyan (Seuserenra) c.1600
    Apepi (Aauserra) c.1555
    Khamudi  
  16th Dynasty 1650-1580 Theban early rulers contemporary with the 15th Dynasty 
  17th Dynasty c.1580-1550 Rahotep  
    Sobekemsaf I  
    Intef VI (Sekhemra)  
    Intef VII (Nubkheperra)  
    Intef VIII (Sekhemraherhermaat)  
    Sobekemsaf II  
    Siamun  
    Taa (Senakhtenra/Seqenenra) c.1560
    Kamose (Wadjkheperra) 1555-1550
NEW KINGDOM 18th Dynasty 1550-1295 BC Ahmose (Nebpehtyra) 1550-1525
1550-1069 BC   Amenhotep I (Djeserkara) 1525-1504
    Thutmose I (Aakheperkara) 1504-1492
    Thutmose II (Aakheperenra) 1492-1479
    Thutmose III (Menkheperra) 1479-1425
    Queen Hatshepsut (Maatkara) 1473-1458
    Amenhotep II (Aakheperura) 1427-1400
    Thutmose IV (Menkheperura) 1400-1390
    Amenhotep III (Nebmaatra) 1390-1352
    Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Neferkheperurawaenra) 1352-1336
    Neferneferuaten (Smenkhkara) 1338-1336
    Tutankhamun (Nebkheperura) 1336-1327
    Ay (Kheperkheperura) 1327-1323
    Horemheb (Djeserkheperura) 1323-1295
RAMESSID PERIOD 19th Dynasty 1295-1186 BC Rameses I (Menpehtyra) 1295-1294
1295-1069 BC   Sety I (Menmaatra) 1294-1279
    Rameses II (Usermaatra Setepenra) 1279-1213
    Merenptah (Baenra) 1213-1203
    Amenmessu (Menmira) 1203-1200
    Sety II (Userkheperura Setepenra) 1200-1194
    Siptah (Akehnrasetepenra) 1194-1188
    Queen Tausret (Sitrameritamun) 1188-1186
  20th Dynasty 1186-1069 BC Sethnakht (Userkhaura Meryamun) 1186-1184
    Rameses III (Usermaatra Meryamun) 1184-1153
    Rameses IV (Heqamaatra Setepenamun) 1153-1147
    Rameses V (Usermaatra Sekheperenra) 1147-1143
    Rameses VI (Nebmaatra Meryamun) 1143-1136
    Rameses VII (Usermaatra Setepenra Meryarnun) 1136-1129
    Rameses VIII (UsermaatraAkhenamun) 1129-1126
    Rameses IX (Neferkara Setepenra) 1126-1108
    Rameses X (Khepermaatra Setepenra) 1108-1099
    Rameses XI (Menmaatra Setepenptah) 1099-1069
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 21st Dynasty 1069-945 BC Smendes (Hedjkheperra Setepenra) 1069-1043
1069-664 BC   Amenemnisu (Neferkara) 1043-1039
    Psusennes I [Pasebakhaenniut] (Akheperra Setepenamun) 1039-991
    Amenemope (Usermaatra Setepenamun) 993-984
    Osorkon the Elder (Akheperra setepenra) 984-978
    Siamun (Netjerkheperra Setepenamun) 978-959
    Psusennes II [Pasebakhaenniut] (Titkheperura Setepenra) 959-945
  22nd Dynasty 945-715 Sheshonq I (Hedjkheperra) 945-924
    Osorkon I (Sekhemkheperra) 924-889
    Sheshonq II (Heqakheperra) c.890
    Takelot I 889-874
    Osorkon II (Usermaatra) 874-850
    Takelot II (Hedjkheperra) 850-825
    Sheshonq III (Usermaatra) 825-773
    Pimay (Usermaatra) 773-767
    Sheshonq V (Aakheperra) 767-730
    Osorkon IV (Aakheperra) 730-715
  23rd Dynasty 818-715 Kings in various centres, contemporary with the later 22nd, 24th, and early 25th dynasties, including:  
    Pedubastis I (Usermaatra)  
    Iuput I  
    Sheshonq IV  
    Osorkon III (Usermaatra)  
    Takelot III (Usermaatra)  
    Rudamon (Usermaatra)  
    Peftjauawybast  
    Iuput II (Usermaatra)  
  24th Dynasty 727-715 Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) 720-715
  25th Dynasty 747-656 Piy (Menkheperra) 747-716
    Shabago (Neferkara) 716-702
    Shabitgo(Djedkaura) 702-690
    Taharqo (Khunefertemra) 690-664
    Tanutamani (Bakara) 664-656
LATE PERIOD 26th Dynasty 664-525 Nekau I 672-664]
664-332 BC   Psamtek I (Wahibra) 664-610
    Nekau II (Wehemibra) 610-595
    Psamtek II (Neferibra) 595-589
    Apries (Haaibra) 589-570
    Ahmose II [Amasis] (Khnemibra) 589-570
    Psamtek III (Ankhkaenra) 526-525
  27th Dynasty 525-404 (1st Persian Period) Cambyses 525-522
    Darius I 522-486
    Xerxes I 486-465
    Artaxerxes I 465-424
    Darius II 424-405
    Artaxerxes II 405-359
  28th Dynasty 404-399 Amyrtaios 404-399
  29th Dynasty 399-380 Nepherites I [Nefaarud] 399-393
    Hakor [Achoris] (Khnemmaatra) 393-380
    Nepherites II c.380
  30th Dynasty 380-343 Nectanebo I (Kheperkara) 380-362
    Teos (Irma Atenra) 362-360
    Nectanebo II (Senedjemibra setepenanhur) 360-343
  2nd Persian Period 343-332 Artaxerxes III Ochus 343-338
    Arses 338-336
    Darius III Codoman 336-332
PTOLEMAIC PERIOD Macedonian Dynasty 332-305 BC Alexander the Great 332-323
332-30 BC   Philip Arrhidaeus 323-317
    Alexander IV (note 4) 317-310
  Ptolemaic Dynasty 305-30 BC Ptolemy I Soter I 305-285
    Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285-246
    Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246-221
    Ptolemy IV Philopator 221-205
    Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180
    Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-145
    Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145
    Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170-116
    Ptolemy IX Soter II 116-107
    Ptolemy X Alexander I 107-88
    Ptolemy IX Soter II (restored to thrown) 88-80
    Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
    Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) 80-51
    Cleopatra VII Philopator 51-30
    Ptolemy XIII 51-47
    Ptolemy XIV 47-44
    Ptolemy XV Caesarion 44-30
ROMAN PERIOD (note 5)   Augustus 30 BC-AD 14
30 BC - AD 395   Tiberius AD 14-37
    Gains (Caligula) AD 37-41
    Claudius AD 41-54
    Nero AD 54-68
    Galba AD 68-69
    Otho AD 69
    Vespasian AD 69-79
    Titus AD 79-81
    Domitian AD 81-96
    Nerva AD 96-98
    Trajan AD 98-117
    Hadrian AD 117-138
    Antoninus Pius AD 138-161
    Marcus Aurelius AD 161-180
    Lucius Verus AD 161-169
    Commodus AD 180-192
    Septimius Severus AD 193-211
    Caracalla AD 198-217
    Geta AD 209-212
    Macrinus AD 217-218
    Didumenianus AD 218
    Severus Alexander AD 222-235
    Gordian III AD 238-242
    Philip AD 244-249
    Decius AD 249-251
    Gallus and Volusianus AD 251-253
    Valerian AD 253-260
    Gallienus AD 253-268
    Macrianus and Quietus AD 260-261
    Aurelian AD 270-275
    Probus AD 276-282
    Diocletian AD 284-305
    Maximian AD 286-305
    Galerius AD 293-311
    Constantius AD 293-306
    Constantine I AD 306-337
    Maxentius AD 306-312
    Maximinus Daia AD 307-324
    Licinius AD 308-324
    Constantine II AD 337-340
    Constans (co-ruler) AD 337-350
    Constantius II (co-ruler) AD 337-361
    Magnetius (co-ruler) AD 350-353
    Julian the Apostate AD 361-363
    Jovian AD 363-364
    Valentinian I (west) AD 364-375
    Valens (co-ruler, east) AD 364-378
    Gratian (co-ruler, west) AD 375-383
    Theodosius (co-ruler) AD 379-395
    Valentinian II (co-ruler, west) AD 383-392
    Eugenius (co-ruler) AD 392-394
 

CHRONOLOGY
This chronology has been compiled on the basis of a number of different criteria, ranging from the interpretation of ancient texts to the radiocarbon dating of excavated materials. The dates from 664 BC to AD 394 are precise, whereas those for prehistory (c.700,000-3000 BC) are approximations based on a combination of stratigraphic information, seriation of artefacts, radiocarbon dates, and the thermoluminescence dates.

The dates for the majority of the Pharaonic Period (i.e. c.3000-664 BC) are based mainly on ancient king-lists, dated inscriptions, and astronomical records. In the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period the margin of likely error is about a decade, but this tends to increase as we move further back in time, so that in the Old Kingdom it might be about fifty years, and in the 1st Dynasty it might be as high as 150 years. When the dates for two or more dynasties overlap (principally in the Second and Third Intermediate periods) it is because their rule was accepted in different parts of the country. Overlapping dates for reigns within dynasties usually indicate co-regencies. When there are apparent gaps in the chronology (particularly at the end of dynasties), this is usually because there are one or two extremely poorly documented rulers, whose regnal dates are unknown or difficult to assess.

By the beginning of the Old Kingdom, Egyptian rulers had five names; the oldest of these was the so-called Horus name, and this is the one that we have usually cited for kings of the 1st-3rd dynasties (except in the case of Djoser, whose Horns name, Netjerikhet, is given in parentheses). From the 4th Dynasty onwards, we have usually given one or both of the so called cartouche names (i.e. the 'nesu-bit' and 'son of Ra' names), and we have also sometimes added the Greek form of the name, especially when this is the name by which a ruler is better known to modern readers (e.g. Cheops for Khufu). Note that the existence and chronological position of the 3rd Dynasty ruler Nebka are currently a matter of debate.

  Note 1 Dates for the Palaeolithic Period are primarily based on un-calibrated radiocarbon dates, therefore they are given as radiocarbon years BP (before present) rather than as Be dates. In order to establish a secure link between the BP and Be dates, the overall range for the Neolithic is cited in terms of both BP and BC. All other dates are BC or AD.
  Note 2 'Lower Egypt' denotes the Delta, the Faiyum, and an area stretching as far as 100 km. south of Cairo. In modern terms it is the north of Egypt. Upper Egypt is the South of Egypt.
  Note 3 Badarian may have been a culture restricted to the Badari region near Asyut in Middle Egypt, rather than being a chronological phase throughout the whole of southern Egypt.
  Note 4 Alexander IV was only the nominal ruler in 310-305 BC.
  Note 5 Dates given here for the Roman Period begin with the official establishment of Egypt as a Roman province (on 31 August 30 BC) and end with the final division of the empire into western and eastern sections in AD 395. This is the beginning of the Byzantine Period, which is usually described as the Coptic or Christian Period in Egypt.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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