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Temple of Hathor at Deir el Medina
A small valley was the area where a community of workmen who constructed the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings had their village. On the north side of the village several temples were built, the largest of which was begun by Amenhotep III and almost completely rebuilt and expanded in later times - long after the village had been deserted.
The temple of the cult of Amenhotep I (1525-1504 bc) stands on the terrace above the Ptolemaic temple at its north corner. The original structure was small and the surrounding walls were added later.
On the north side of the complex is the site where Sety I (1294-1279 BC) built a temple for the villagers for Deir el Medina. It was considerably larger than Amenhotep's temple and it consists of a series of enclosures before a tripartite sanctuary. The image shows the steps leading from each of the enclosures.
Images of the exterior of the temple enclosure. This mud brick curtail wall was added during the Ptolemaic development, long after the worker's village of Deir el Medina had been abandoned.
|The base of mud brick wall can be found directly opposite the temple's entrance. The plan of the temple does show a structure, but this is approximately 25 feet from the entrance. Dieter Arnolds' "The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture" does show a plan of this structure and it is referenced as being added during the Ptolemaic phase.
of the exterior curtail wall's entrance, added during the Ptolemaic
re-working of the temple.
Interior of the temple's courtyard
of the Enclosure Wall
The temple's interior is enclosed by a Ptolemaic curtail wall made of mud bricks.
Inside the interior are a number of votive chapels, like the top picture.
Picture 2 shows the interior and the placement of the votive chapels.
This show the exterior of the Temple of Hathor built by Ptolemy IV, and finished by later Ptolemies.
To the east of the Temple of Hathor is a birth house, constructed during the same phase of development.
The Ptolemaic temple is in a state of excellent presentation.
The temple was used long after the village was deserted. Eventually it was transformed into a Coptic monastery, which it's modern name, meaning 'Monastery of the Town', is formed.
Couldn't translate this coptic script. The beginning is Saint but the rest is unclear.
Temple of Hathor
temple of Hathor
Directly to the north of the village is the small Ptolemaic temple dedicated to Hathor. It is also dedicated to Maat, Amenhotep son of Hapu and to Imhotep. During the Coptic period it was converted into a monastery, which ironically gave it protection when other temple were defaced.
The compound embraces the sites of earlier temples and the remaining Ptolemaic temple itself is fronted by a staircase of Ramesses II. The temple, built in the 3rd century by Ptolemy IV and enhanced by Ptolemy VI and also by Ptolemy XI. The temple is in near perfect condition.
The temple's style is very simple, as the plan
shows. The columned hypostyle hall opens into a narrow vestibule
before three sanctuaries. The hypostyle hall has two pillars. The
vestibule, which included the stairway to the ceiling, has scenes of
Ptolemy IV offering to Hathor in the form of a Cow and to
the right he is offering to various gods.
The Amun-Sokar-Osiris sanctuary has a bass-relief scene of the Osiride judgement. This is more commonly found in tombs than in temples. Here, as in the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri, chapels were also dedicated to both Imhotep and Amenhotep son of Hapu.
A stairway leads from the left side of the vestibule to the temple's roof.
Hathor was clearly popular with the villages of Deir el Medina. Many of the women had the title "Songstress of Hathor" and there were a number of chapels dedicated to her in the village. Sety I built a temple to her, as did his son Ramesses II. This was replaced by the present Ptolemaic temple long after the worker's village had been deserted. Excavation in the temple uncovered a statue of Mertseger, the snake goddess who was another form of Hathor.
Picture of the great pit which is to the north of the village of Deir el Medina. This picture doesn't give justice to the pit's depth which is over 100 feet and very sheer.
Originally excavated as a walk-down well and then re-used as a rubbish pit by the village. Access to the bottom is via a winding path. The excavation of the pit yielded a treasure in Ostracon ands daily garbage - which has helped provide a window into the people's lives. This is incredibly so rare to have a view on the day-to-day lives of non-royal individuals in antiquity.
Bernard Bruyère excavated the village and surrounding area in 1922-40 and 1945-51. He found over 5000 limestone ostrica in the pit. Bruyère also found the Library of Kenherkhepshef.
The Ptolemaic temple isn't on every tourist route, especially with such a wealth of other monuments to complete with. The guardian of the temple is happy to guide parties or individuals around the temple and is happy to indicate the lesser known parts of this small but interesting temple.
The 'great pit' is about 100 meters to the north of the temple. If time permits the guardian is happy to give a quick guided tour of the pit, and will even hang over the edge to take a picture..!