Ancient Egypt and Archaeology Web Site
Picture 233 1

Ground plan of the tomb of Ramesses IV. Acquired by Drovetti (French Consol General to Egypt) in Egypt and sold to Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, in 1824.  These papyri were largely considered uninteresting until Champollion mastered the translation of Hieroglyphs and unlocked the history of ancient Egypt. Ramesses IV's tomb is within the Valley of the Kings and is designated KV2.  The tomb has been open since antiquity but is well preserved and is usually open to the public. The plan shows the burial chamber and the rooms to it's left and right.

Ramesses VI, Heqa-maat-ra Setepen-amun, reigned during the Ramesside Period, Dynasties 19-20, c.1295-1069 BC.  This period was part of the New Kingdom Period which included the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties. The Ramesside period is so-called after the eleven kings with the name Ramesses, who ruled in the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties. Ramesses II (about 1279-1213 BC) faced the armies of the Hittite empire at the Battle of Kadesh and as a result became a role model for his successors. Partly in response to the threat of foreign incursions, he founded a capital in the Nile Delta, known as Pi-Ramesses.

The period was characterised by efforts to ward off migrating tribes known as the 'Sea Peoples' who, by the reign of Ramesses III (c.1184-1153 BC), had joined forces with Libyan tribes. In struggling against these peoples, Egypt lost its hold on the empire. After the assassination of Ramesses III the internal economy began to crumble, resulting in administrative corruption and political strife. The succession of kings named Ramesses failed to live up to the achievements of their famous predecessor.

The artistic style of the time of Ramesses II, who left more monuments than any other Egyptian king, was the model for the entire Ramesside Period. The literature of the time includes accounts of the great battles, but also many important letters and documents relating to everyday life. These documents include accounts of the trial of the assassins of Ramesses III, the trials of tomb robbers and records of strikes by tomb workers.

New Kingdom - 18th dynasty
Amenhotep I
Thutmose I
Thutmose II
Thutmose III
Amenhotep II
Thutmose IV
Amenhotep III
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)
This family began a period of unprecedented success in international affairs for Egypt. There was a succession of extraordinary and able kings and queens who laid the foundations of a strong Egypt and bequeathed a prosperous economy to the kings of the 19th dynasty.

There was Ahmose who expelled the Hyksos, followed by Thutmose It's conquest in the Near East and Africa.

Queen Hatshepsut and Thutmose III who made Egypt into an ancient super power. The magnificent Amenhotep III, who began an artistic revolution. Akhenaton and Nefertiti who began a religious revolution - the concept of one god. Finally there was Tutankhamun who is so famous in our modern age.

19th dynasty

Ramesses I
Sety I
Ramesses II
Sety II
Sety It's reign looked for its model to the mid-18th dynasty and was a time of considerable prosperity. He restored countless monuments. His temple at Abydos exhibits some of the finest carved wall reliefs. His son Ramesses II is the major figure of the dynasty. Around this time the Hittites had become a dominant Asiatic power. An uneasy balance of power developed between the two kingdoms, which was punctuated by wars and treaties.
By now Egypt was an ethnically pluralistic society and this is reflected in a diversity of artistic expression. Unfortunately the tide of history was turning and Ramesses son; Merenptah had to struggle to maintain Egypt's prestige.
20th dynasty
Ramesses III
Ramesses IV
Ramesses V
Ramesses VI
Ramesses VII
Ramesses VIII
Ramesses IX
Ramesses X
Ramesses XI
Setnakht ruled for only a few years but restored order after a period of chaos. His son Ramesses III was the last great king. He gave Egypt a final moment of glory by defeating Sea Peoples who had utterly destroyed Hittite Empire and swept all before them on their march south. After Ramesses III, Egypt began to suffer economic problems and a break down in the fabric of society. She was unable to exploit the revolution of the Iron Age and there followed a succession of kings all called Ramesses. Perhaps this was a vain attempt to recapture past glories.


















The Source: Complete Valley of the Kings, Nicholas Reeves and Richard H Wilkinson
Museo Egizio di Torino, Italy.

Egyptology and Archaeology through Images: Last updated on 17-December-2023