Ancient Egypt and Archaeology Web Site

Period Dynasty Period Dynasty
Palaeolithic New Kingdom 18th Dynasty
Saharan Neolithic Ramesside 19th Dynasty
Pre-Dynastic 20th Dynasty
Early Dynastic 1st Dynasty Third Intermediate 21st Dynasty
2nd Dynasty 22nd Dynasty
Old Kingdom 3rd Dynasty 23rd Dynasty
4th Dynasty 24th Dynasty
5th Dynasty 25th Dynasty
6th Dynasty Late 26th Dynasty
7th and 8th Dynasties 27th Dynasty (1st Persian Period)
First Intermediate 9th and 10th Dynasties 28th Dynasty
11th Dynasty Thebes only 29th Dynasty
Middle Kingdom 11th Dynasty All of Egypt 30th Dynasty
12th Dynasty 31st Dynasty (2nd Persian Period)
13th Dynasty Ptolemaic Ptolemaic Dynasty
14th Dynasty Roman  
Second Intermediate 15th Dynasty (Hyksos)  
16th Dynasty Coptic
17th Dynasty Islamic


The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, ISBN 0-19-280293-3 (larger soft-back with significantly better plates in colour) or 0-19-280458-8. Possibly the best reference source for Ancient Egypt. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt is concerned with "not only the political change but also with social and economic developments, processes of religious and ideological change, and trends in material culture, whether in the form of architectural styles, techniques of mummification, or the fabrics of ceramics."


1st Dynasty c.3000-2890

c.3000-2686 Djer
Queen Merneith
2nd Dynasty 2890-2686

OLD KINGDOM 3rd Dynasty 2686-2613 Nebka 2686-2667
2686-2160 Djoser (Netjerikhet) 2667-2648
Sekhemkhet 2648-2640
Khaba 2640-2637
Huni 2637-2613
4th Dynasty 2613-2494 Sneferu 2613-2589
Khufu (Cheops) 2589-2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) 2566-2558
Khafra (Chephren) 2558-2532
Menkaura (Mycerinus) 2532-2503
Shepseskaf 2503-2494
5th Dynasty 2494-2345 Userkaf 2494-2487
Sahura 2487-2475
Neferirkara 2475-2455
Shepseskara 2455-2448
Raneferef or Nefer-ef-Ra 2448-2445
Nyuserra 2445-2421
Menkauhor 2421-2414
Djedkara 2414-2375
Unas 2375-2345
6th Dynasty 2345-2181 Teti 2345-2323
Userkara [a usurper] 2323-2321
Pepy I (Meryra) 2321-2287
Merenra 2287-2278
Pepy II (Neferkara) 2278-2184
Nitiqret 2184-2181
7th and 8th Dynasties 2181-2160 Numerous kings, called Neferkara, presumably imitating Pepy II.
FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 9th and 10th Dynasties (Herakleopolitan) 2160-2025 Khety (Meryibra)
2160-2055 Khety (Nebkaura)
Khety (Wahkara)
11th Dynasty 2125-2055
Thebes only, before unification
Intef I (Sehertawy)
Intef II (Wahankh)
Intef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer)
MIDDLE KINGDOM 11th Dynasty 2055-1985 Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetra) 2055-2004
2055-1650 (all Egypt) Mentuhotep III (Sankhkara) 2004-1992
Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyra) 1992-1985
12th Dynasty 1985-1773 Amenemhat I (Sehetepibra) 1985-1956
Senusret I (Kheperkara) 1956-1911
Amenemhat II (Nubkaura) 1911-1877
Senusret II (Khakheperra) 1877-1870
Senusret III (Khakaura) 1870-1831
Amenemhat III (Nimaatra) 1831-1786
Amenemhat IV (Maakherura) 1786-1777
Queen Sobekneferu (Sobekkara) 1777-1773
13th Dynasty 1773-after 1650 Wegaf (Khutawyra)
Sobekhotep II (Sekhemra-khutawy)
Iykhernefert Neferhotep (Sankhta sekhemra)
Ameny-intef-amenemhat (Sankhibra)
Hor (Awibra)
Khendjer (Userkara)
Sobekhotep III (Sekhemra-sewadjtawy)
Neferhotep I (Khasekhemra)
Sobekhotep IV (Khaneferra)
Sobekhotep V (?)
Ay (Merneferra)
14th Dynasty c.1773-1650 Minor rulers probably contemporary with the 13th or 15th Dynasty
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 15th Dynasty (Hyksos) 1650-1550 Salitis/Sekerher c.1555
1650-1550 Khyan (Seuserenra) c.1600
Apepi (Aauserra) c.1555
16th Dynasty c.1650-1580 Theban early rulers contemporary with the 15th Dynasty
17th Dynasty c.1580-1550 Rahotep
Sobekemsaf I
Intef VI (Sekhemra)
Intef VII (Nubkheperra)
Intef VIII (Sekhemraherhermaat)
Sobekemsaf II
Taa (Senakhtenra/Seqenenra) c.1560
Kamose (Wadjkheperra) 1555-1550
NEW KINGDOM 18th Dynasty 1550-1295 Ahmose (Nebpehtyra) 1550-1525
1550-1069 Amenhotep I (Djeserkara) 1525-1504
Thutmose I (Aakheperkara) 1504-1492
Thutmose II (Aakheperenra) 1492-1479
Thutmose III (Menkheperra) 1479-1425
Queen Hatshepsut (Maatkara) 1473-1458
Amenhotep II (Aakheperura) 1427-1400
Thutmose IV (Menkheperura) 1400-1390
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatra) 1390-1352
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Neferkheperurawaenra) 1352-1336
Neferneferuaten (Smenkhkara) 1338-1336
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperura) 1336-1327
Ay (Kheperkheperura) 1327-1323
Horemheb (Djeserkheperura) 1323-1295
RAMESSIDE PERIOD 19th Dynasty 1295-1186 Ramesses I (Menpehtyra) 1295-1294
1295-1069 Sety I (Menmaatra) 1294-1279
Ramesses II (Usermaatra Setepenra) 1279-1213
Merenptah (Baenra) 1213-1203
Amenmessu (Menmira) 1203-1200
Sety II (Userkheperura Setepenra) 1200-1194
Siptah (Akehnrasetepenra) 1194-1188
Queen Tausret (Sitrameritamun) 1188-1186
20th Dynasty 1186-1069 Sethnakht (Userkhaura Meryamun) 1186-1184
Ramesses III (Usermaatra Meryamun) 1184-1153
Ramesses IV (Heqamaatra Setepenamun) 1153-1147
Ramesses V (Usermaatra Sekheperenra) 1147-1143
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatra Meryamun) 1143-1136
Ramesses VII (Usermaatra Setepenra Meryarnun) 1136-1129
Ramesses VIII (UsermaatraAkhenamun) 1129-1126
Ramesses IX (Neferkara Setepenra) 1126-1108
Ramesses X (Khepermaatra Setepenra) 1108-1099
Ramesses XI (Menmaatra Setepenptah) 1099-1069
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 21st Dynasty 1069-945 (in Tanis) Smendes (Hedjkheperra Setepenra) 1069-1043
1069-664 Amenemnisu (Neferkara) 1043-1039
Psusennes I [Pasebakhaenniut] (Akheperra Setepenamun) 1039-991
Amenemope (Usermaatra Setepenamun) 993-984
Osorkon the Elder (Akheperra setepenra) 984-978
Siamun (Netjerkheperra Setepenamun) 978-959
Psusennes II [Pasebakhaenniut] (Titkheperura Setepenra) 959-945
22nd Dynasty 945-715 (in Bubastis) Sheshonq I (Hedjkheperra) 945-924
(Rulers at Tanis) Osorkon I (Sekhemkheperra) 924-889
Sheshonq II (Heqakheperra) c.890
Takelot I 889-874
Osorkon II (Usermaatra) 874-850
Takelot II (Hedjkheperra) 850-825
Sheshonq III (Usermaatra) 825-773
Pimay (Usermaatra) 773-767
Sheshonq V (Aakheperra) 767-730
Osorkon IV (Aakheperra) 730-715
23rd Dynasty 818-715 (in Leontopolis) Kings in various centres, contemporary with the later 22nd, 24th, and early 25th dynasties, including:
Pedubastis I (Usermaatra)
Iuput I
Sheshonq IV
Osorkon III (Usermaatra)
Takelot III (Usermaatra)
Rudamon (Usermaatra)
Iuput II (Usermaatra)
24th Dynasty 727-715 (in Sais) Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) 720-715
25th Dynasty 747-656 (in Napata) Piy (Menkheperra) 747-716
Shabago (Neferkara) 716-702
Shabitgo(Djedkaura) 702-690
Taharqo (Khunefertemra) 690-664
Tanutamani (Bakara) 664-656
26th Dynasty 664-525 Nekau I 672-664
(The Saites) Psamtek I (Wahibra) 664-610
Nekau II (Wehemibra) 610-595
Psamtek II (Neferibra) 595-589
Apries (Haaibra) 589-570
Ahmose II [Amasis] (Khnemibra) 570-526
Psamtek III (Ankhkaenra) 526-525
27th Dynasty 525-404 Cambyses 525-522
(1st Persian Period) Darius I 522-486
Xerxes I 486-465
Artaxerxes I 465-424
Darius II 424-405
Artaxerxes II 405-359
28th Dynasty 404-399 Amyrtaios 404-399
29th Dynasty 399-380 Nepherites I [Nefaarud] 399-393
Hakor [Achoris] (Khnemmaatra) 393-380
Nepherites II c.380
30th Dynasty 380-343 Nectanebo I (Kheperkara) 380-362
(2nd Persian Period) Teos (Irma atenra) 362-360
Nectanebo II (Senedjemibra setepenanhur) 360-343
31st Dynasty 343-332 Artaxerxes III Ochus 343-338
Arses 338-336
Darius III Codoman 336-332
Macedonian Dynasty 332-305 Alexander the Great 332-323
Philip Arrhidaeus 323-317
Alexander IV (note 4) 317-310
Ptolemaic Dynasty 305-30 Ptolemy I Soter I 305-285
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 285-246
Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246-221
Ptolemy IV Philopator 221-205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180
Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-145
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170-116
Ptolemy IX Soter II 116-107
Ptolemy X Alexander I 107-88
Ptolemy IX Soter II (restored to thrown) 88-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) 80-51
Cleopatra VII Philopator 51-30
Ptolemy XIII 51-47
Ptolemy XIV 47-44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion 44-30
30 - AD 395
Augustus 30 -AD 14
Tiberius AD 14-37
Gains (Caligula) AD 37-41
Claudius AD 41-54
Nero AD 54-68
Galba AD 68-69
Otho AD 69
Vespasian AD 69-79
Titus AD 79-81
Domitian AD 81-96
Nerva AD 96-98
Trajan AD 98-117
Hadrian AD 117-138
Antoninus Pius AD 138-161
Marcus Aurelius AD 161-180
Lucius Verus AD 161-169
Commodus AD 180-192
Septimius Severus AD 193-211
Caracalla AD 198-217
Geta AD 209-212
Macrinus AD 217-218
Didumenianus AD 218
Severus Alexander AD 222-235
Gordian III AD 238-242
Philip AD 244-249
Decius AD 249-251
Gallus and Volusianus AD 251-253
Valerian AD 253-260
Gallienus AD 253-268
Macrianus and Quietus AD 260-261
Aurelian AD 270-275
Probus AD 276-282
Diocletian AD 284-305
Maximian AD 286-305
Galerius AD 293-311
Constantius AD 293-306
Constantine I AD 306-337
Maxentius AD 306-312
Maximinus Daia AD 307-324
Licinius AD 308-324
Constantine II AD 337-340
Constans (co-ruler) AD 337-350
Constantius II (co-ruler) AD 337-361
Magnetius (co-ruler) AD 350-353
Julian the Apostate AD 361-363
Jovian AD 363-364
Valentinian I (west) AD 364-375
Valens (co-ruler, east) AD 364-378
Gratian (co-ruler, west) AD 375-383
Theodosius (co-ruler) AD 379-395
Valentinian II (co-ruler, west) AD 383-392
Eugenius (co-ruler) AD 392-394

Royal Titulary
Each King created a name on his ascension to the throne and it was also a 'mandate' for this style of leadership. The royal name was comprised of 5 separate elements (although earlier kings used less) we modern writing often used the 'Nomen' or person name, which preceded his kingship. Many Egyptian names were translated into Greek, for example Amenhotep (Egyptian) into Amenophis (Greek) - older books tend to use the Greek names but this is now less common and a translation from the original hieroglyphs is used.

The full titulary was only used in formal inscriptions; otherwise a king was usually identified by his prenomen which was either written alone or accompanied by the nomen. The prenomen and nomen are usually left in their Egyptian forms (for example, 'Thutmose' rather than translating it into 'Thoth-is-born'). The transliteration of the kings' names vary in modern books on Egyptology. Some retain the Graecised form of a name, as it occurred in the historical account of Manetho (e.g., Amenophis, Sesostris, Cheops), whereas others give a translation based on the Hieroglyphs (e.g., Amenhotep, Senusret, Khufu). Pronunciations also vary, because of the absence of vowels in the hieroglyphic writings of the names and our limited knowledge of the pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian.

Horus name - This name was often written within a rectangular frame, on top of which perched the falcon-god Horus, which probably represented the king's palace. This name represented the king as the earthly incarnation of the ancient falcon-god Horus, who became the first divine patron of royalty.

'Nebty' name - Nbty means the 'Two Ladies', and this name emphasises the king's special relationship with the two great goddesses, Nekhbet, the vulture goddess of Upper Egypt, and Edjo, the cobra goddess of Lower Egypt . They ruled supreme as the two ancient capitals of Hieraconpolis and Pe, before Egypt was unified by King Menes in c.3100 BC. However, they continued to play an important role as royal protectress even after unification - hence their inclusion in the royal titulary.

Golden Horus name - The meaning of this name is uncertain. It may signify the victory of Horus over his enemy Seth (in the myth of Osiris), but it may represent the reconciled enemies, Horus and Seth, as lords of Egypt .

Prenomen - From the 5th Dynasty onwards (after King Sahure), the Prenomen and the Nomen were both written inside cartouches. The prenomen was adopted as a religious name by each king when he ascended to the throne, and it was always immediately preceded (outside the cartouche) by the title n-sw-bit 'he who belongs to the sedge and the bee'. The sedge represented Upper Egypt, and the bee Lower Egypt, so the title meant 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt '. The prenomen itself usually incorporates the name of the god Re (e.g. nb-mAat-re, 'Re is Lord of Truth').

Nomen - The nomen, again enclosed within a cartouche, was usually the name of the king before he succeeded to the throne (i.e. almost a family name) and therefore, it is not uncommon for several kings within a family to have the same nomen (e.g. Thutmose, Amenhotep, Senusret). The nomen was immediately preceded (outside the cartouche) by the title s3 ra ('son of Re').

There is a Ancient Egyptian Dictionary available for download (it is 2.9 Mbytes). Note - Don't forget that PDF files can be searched using Ctrl-F or Shift-Ctrl-F (this is a good feature that lists all matches in a side window). This also works for Transliteration; e.g. to Find (Ancient Egyptian inscription for 'Friendly') you can search for sbT Hr (case insensitive) using the Manual de Codage system. The same applies for the Gardiner (see full sign list), which are separated by a dash.

Note - If you can't see an S with an upside down V above it inside the brackets (S) then you need some additional fonts for your PC. Here is a link to the font file, which can install or save (into your font directory, often c:\windows\Fonts\). You will need to re-load this page to see the new fonts.

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